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Driscoll DA, SC Banks, PS Barton, DB Lindenmayer and AL Smith (2013) Conceptual domain of the matrix in fragmented landscapes . TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION 28(10):605-613

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In extensively modified landscapes, how the matrix is managed determines many 13 conservation outcomes. Recent publications revise popular conceptions of a homogeneous 14 and static matrix, yet we still lack an adequate conceptual model of the matrix. Here, we 15 identify three core effects that influence patch-dependent species, through impacts 16 associated with movement and dispersal, resource availability and the abiotic environment. 17 These core effects are modified by five 'dimensions': (i) spatial and (ii) temporal variation 18 in matrix quality, (iii) spatial scale, (iv) temporal scale of matrix variation, and (v) 19 adaptation. The conceptual domain of the matrix, defined as three core effects and their 20 interaction with the five dimensions, provides a much-needed framework to underpin 21 management of fragmented landscapes and highlights new research priorities.