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Westgate MJ, GE Likens and DB Lindenmayer (2013) Adaptive management of biological systems: A review. BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION 158:128-139

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Adaptive Management (AM) is widely considered to be the best available approach for managing biological systems in the presence of uncertainty. But AM has arguably only rarely succeeded in improving biodiversity outcomes. There is therefore an urgent need for reflection regarding how practitioners might overcome key problems hindering greater implementation of AM. In this paper, we present the first structured review of the AM literature that relates to biodiversity and ecosystem management, with the aim of quantifying how rare AM projects actually are. We also investigated whether AM practitioners in terrestrial and aquatic systems described the same problems; the degree of consistency in how the term 'adaptive management' was applied; the extent to which AM projects were sustained over time; and whether articles describing AM projects were more highly cited than comparable non-AM articles. We found that despite the large number of articles identified through the ISI web of knowledge (n = 1336), only 61 articles (